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Archive for the ‘Week 2 Readings’ Category

Physical Interfaces in Electronic Arts- Bongers

In Readings, Week 2 Readings on January 27, 2010 at 5:40 pm

,In Physical Interfaces in Electronic Arts, Bongers talks about a couple different ways of interaction between electronics and the audience. He speaks more about audio than other systems, but it can be translated to all electronics. Bongers goes on to talk about about three different ways of interactions in music. The first is a system interaction which is a musician playing his instrument. The second interaction is a system-audience which is an installation art. Lastly, we have a performer-system-audience interaction which makes it a two way process between performer and audience, through the system.

In chapter 2, Bongers talks more about the mechanics of digital sound and different sensing technologies and how human output is the starting point for information. Some examples of human output are muscle action, blowing, voice, blood pressure, and heart rate. Two muscle actions that Bongers talks about are isometric(pressure sensors and switches) or movement(displacement).

Week 2 Reading : Chapter 6

In Readings, Week 2 Readings on January 27, 2010 at 4:27 pm

Starts off talking about difficulties of describing tasks in terms of design.
When discussing interface design, 2 main problems with theoretical design models.
1. Laborious and Time Consuming.
2. Theory-laden and beyond the scope of a typical HCI designer.

Tangible computing has 3 related ways of connecting activities and space in which they’re carried.
1. through the configurability of space
2. through the relationship of body to task
3. through physical constraints

Much of interaction involves communicating realistic data.
Additionally, users tend to actively improvise while operating within the set virtual reality.

Design changes to support improvised action by giving users control over management.
Support improvisation by making the dynamic situation visible to the user.
Generally common expectations, meaning, systems, based on this operation. Relates to how mind works.
Means we need to pay attention to how users’ behavior evolves around technologies over time.

Six Design Principles Explored:

Computation is a Medium
This basically means that we are modulating our behavior and that the computer translates it via computation.
The computer is not relevant unless we look at how it is computing.
We modulate based on how the computation works.
Therefore we must look at how computation affects modulation, which in turn affects meaning and defining.
Focus not on capability of technologies per se, but how technology embeds into set of practices.

Meaning Arises on Multiple Levels

objects carry meaning on multiple levels.
on their own right, as signifiers of social meaning, as elements in systems of practice, etc.
creating and managing meaning cannot simply be up to the designer.
Items have iconic and symbolic meanings.
Items also vary between items of object to items of action.
We have to revise this

Users, not Designers, Create and Communicate Meaning
Users, not Designers, Manage Coupling

There is the artifact, and how the artifact is used.
Designer cannot completely control how people use an artifact.
Need to be alert to how systems may be used.
Need to be aware of how it operates within a set of existing practices.
Designers can only suggest coupling of meanings.
Ultimately the users and perception of how things are used determines coupling.
Designers stance, or conception of what he is doing.
Stance needs to change to operate as the user, not as a dictator to the user.
Different set of issues need to be seen.
This can be done by looking at a user and acting with and through them instead of for them.

Embodied Technologies Participate in the World they Represent

Meaning arises from engaged action.
Embodiment doesnt mean physical reality, it means parcipitative status.
Creating a language through engaged action requires participation in existing schema.
In roller example, it’s about the rollers and how they integrate into human interaction.
Not about the rollers. Not about interaction.
Representation and participation are important considerations in system design.

Embodied Interaction Turns into Meaning

Relationship between action and meaning is central to embodiment.
This is within the perspective of reality and the rest of the world.
Didn’t really understand this last section.

Week 2 reading : Interactivity, Public Art & Architecture [Reiser]

In Readings, Week 2 Readings on January 27, 2010 at 8:48 am
Reiser’s article focuses on the emergence and innate fabric of (interactive) public art infused with architecture – what it is, how it came about, and where it is heading towards.
While giving a brief philosophical account of the public art space, Reiser mentions the different perspectives of the ‘virtual domain’, or _simulacra_ as it is more popularly called in philosophers’ circles. Baudrillard’s perspective is different from that of Deleuze’s in the sense that the latter states that simulacrum circumvents authority by the inclusion of the spectator. He supports the latter’s claim by citing the works of the famous proejction artist Krystof Wodiczko (of the swastika projection fame).
In digging up the origins of this domain, Reiser stumbles upon the disturbing distance between the ‘artist’ and the ‘architect’, and he is certainly surprised by the fact that some of the famous public art works that use notable architecture as canvas have actually been produced by trained artists. Reiser’s discomfort also extends to the fact that the technology used for public art work today isn’t very different from what was used 70 years ago. Rauschenberg’s concerted yet frustraing attempts at public installation art being thwarted by limitations of technology is used as an example to support his claim.
Our notion of ‘appropriate content’ has come a far way, and Reiser employs the user of examples like Jochen and Gerz’s work and Hayden’s Arc en Ciel – very contrasting slices of end-goals and working methods of public art. Reiser identifies the power of the _public_, whether it be utilizing teir techno-fear, or their love of dynamically appearing colors and sounds. Taking this to the next level, he mentions that this leads to Haptic Interfaces with the different projects of Jeffrey Shaw and Hoberman being used as examples.
Reiser then moves on to explain the point of fusion between public art and architecture. Materials play a very important role in this coming-together of two domains, and he laments the fact that very little has been achieved in actually combining digital technology with architectural materials, which if achieved, would undoubtedly usher in a wave of new creations in this domain.

Week 2 Readings

In Readings, Week 2 Readings on January 27, 2010 at 5:08 am

Tangible Bits (Ishii & Ullmer)
This reading introduces the various HCI experiments of MIT Media Labs as well as past experiments at Xerox PARC. The goal of each experiment was the bridge the gap between “the worlds of bits and atoms,” or to make the Graphical User Interface (GUI) into a Tangible User Interface (TUI). Many different kinds of non-visual feedback are discussed. For example, mapping manipulation of virtual objects with physical “bricks,” thus allowing a more physical interaction than a simple keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Physical objects can also represent forms of data, exemplified by the marble answering machine, for which a voice message is mapped to a specific physical marble, and playback or returning a call can be done by simply placing the marble in a slot. Another example of physical representations of data is the barcode scanning of blocks that represented URLs to whiteboard notes and information.

Audio can also be used as a sort of feedback. In MIT’s ambientROOM, a toy car model could represent the website of that specific car company, and audio feedback in the form of raindrops represent the amount of traffic the website is currently receiving. Sporadic drops of water could mean the website is not advertised very well, or a loud downpour could represent a huge amount of traffic.

The reading ends with a digital computing object, the abacus, as having both physical and digital uses and representations. 2-year-old Ishii recalls using the abacus as a musical instrument, make-believe train, and a backscratcher; but it also doubled for his mother as a digital calculator, and its sound provided feedback for when she was busy and unable to play. In the same way, the idea of “tangible bits” is to make an object multi-purposed in computational media.